Japan, the Bureaucratic War Machine | BETWEEN 2 WARS I 1931 Part 2 of 3

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Japan, the Bureaucratic War Machine | BETWEEN 2 WARS I 1931 Part 2 of 3 5

In Japan, there has been a gradual increase of militarism since The Great War and in 1931 the country goes to war again when they Invade Chinese Manchuria based on a false flag terrorist strike at the Mukden railway junction.

Hosted by: Indy Neidell
Written by: Spartacus Olsson
Directed by: Spartacus Olsson and Astrid Deinhard
Executive Producers: Bodo Rittenauer, Astrid Deinhard, Indy Neidell, Spartacus Olsson
Creative Producer: Joram Appel
Post-Production Director: Wieke Kapteijns
Research by: Joram Appel and Spartacus Olsson
Edited by: Danile Weiss
Sound design: Marek Kaminsky


A TimeGhost chronological documentary produced by OnLion Entertainment GmbH.


James Fulcher, The Bureaucratization of the State and the Rise of Japan (1988)

Katō Yōko, ‘The debate on fascism in Japanese historiography’, in: Sven Saaler and Christopher W.A. Szpilman (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Modern Japanese History (2018), 225-236.

Ethan Mark, ‘Japan’s 1930s” crisis, fascism, and social imperialism’, in: Sven Saaler and Christopher W.A. Szpilman (ed)., Routledge Handbook of Modern Japanese History (2018), 237-250.

Penolepe Francks, ‘The path of economic development from the late nineteenth centre to the economic miracle’, in: Sven Saaler and Christopher W.A. Szpilman (ed)., Routledge Handbook of Modern Japanese History (2018), 267-278.

Sandra Wilson and Robert Cribb, ‘Japan’s colonial empire’, in: Sven Saaler and Christopher W.A. Szpilman (ed)., Routledge Handbook of Modern Japanese History (2018), 77-91.

Mark R. Peattie, ‘ Nanshin: The “Southward Advance,” 1931-1941, as a Prelude to the Japanese Occupation of Southeast Asia’, in: Peter Duus e.a., The Japanese Wartime Empire, 1931-1945 (2010), 190-242.

💬 Comments on the video

This is the third of several episodes that cover the developments in East Asia leading to World War Two. In this episode we look at how Japan by 1931 has developed to be on the brink of a fascist state without anyone specifically taking power or staging a coup. The democratic reforms from the past four decades are dying a death by a thousand cuts as the Japanese administration and military simply take one small decision after the other that erodes freedom, dials back democracy, and inevitably leads to war. It's an anonymous, mechanic, gradual movement towards global conflict proceeding with clockwork precision.

This episode also sees the first change to the Between 2 Wars set as Astrid and Wieke have started adapting the set to the changing themes, while we move closer and closer to the outbreak of WW2 - we'd love to hear what you think!

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Author — TimeGhost History


> they need a casus belli

Every Paradox games player ever:

"Any casus belli is good casus belli"

Author — Томас Андерсон


I’m curious to why we didn’t cover Kaiser Karl’s two restoration attempts to take the Hungarian throne in the 1920s?

Author — Darius


I think it's worth noting the sheer animosity between Japan and Russia. Of course, there is the Russo-Japanese war, but beyond that, the bolshevik revolution is a huge offense. They killed their monarchs, which in Japanese eyes, is as big a no-no as it gets. That may be part of why communism was never really internally desirable in Japan, at least in that time period. Japan did have communist movements, yes, but they were nowhere near as relevant as in other countries.

Author — Cwovictor


Meanwhile in Tokyo general Tojo is busy polishing his bald head.

Author — TheCimbrianBull


China: exists

Japan: it’s war crimes time

Author — TheJacobShapiro


I fear all Indy has done is create a Youtube- channel and fill it with a terrible demonetisation

Author — Yours Truly


This is an amazing episode! This is my field of study and I am so glad to see it represented so well! My honors thesis is on Japanese politics during WWII and you did a really good job on this video! I'm always a little critical of your WW2 series for being a bit Euro-centric, but I understand that the conflicts in Asia are so complex that to do it justice you would really need a whole show to run in parallel with your current one to keep up with events, and there are not many Westerns who really dive into East-Asian in the early 20th century with enough knowledge of the languages and cultures to do it justice. I had to learn both Japanese and Mandarin to do my undergraduate research, and even still I feel like I would need to master more Yue dialects and learn more traditional Kanji to really be able to read 1st party sources without dependence on 3rd party translators.

Sometimes I wish I had the charisma, time, and money to do a series like yours focusing on my field of study. In any case, I'm delighted that this turned out so well!

Author — Zachary Freeman


"gradually introduces western style law" in one way you are definitely correct, it's a gradual process. However comparing it to literally any other non-western nation it's practically the speed of light that Japan adapts to the West in a lot of regards.

Author — dionysos739


Remember Japan went from the Middle ages, with the feudal system, to becoming an industrial powerhouse in the span of less than two generations, skipping anything resembling a renaissance period or Illustration, in which old ideas have time to die out and new ideas have time to develop. That's almost unheard of in history and, wherever otters happened, the result has usually been the same: a total cultural collapse of both old and new world views, chaos and totalitarism.

Author — モレナウエル


Someone knows their Japanese table manners, putting the chopsticks on the bowl like that.

Author — Chris Stewart


Japan: *scratches railway*

Japan: how could Russia do this?

Author — Pablofski


Japan's infamy should be massive. Then again it is late game and a few years are left so I guess Japan went all in.

Author — flyingkoopa45


It would be helpful to have a link to the first of this three part series. and congrats on the 100k threshold

Author — Brian JOnker


Always a good sign when the military are independent from the government.

Author — Valdagast


15:32 The "Manchukuo" plan had been on the table for several years: Puyi and his supporters were secretly collaborating with the Japanese hoping that they would reinstall the Qing dynasty as a reliable ally.

Author — Podemos URSS


If you want to know more about Japan and the Meiji restoration, try out Dan Carlin's Hardcore History - Supernova in the East. It gave me great insight.

Author — Michal Číhala


Excellent video. Just mention that Pu To was an ethnic Manchu, as the last Chinese imperial dynasty, the Qing, were of Manchu origin, and not of the majority Han group.

Author — モレナウエル


"According to my agreement with the Japanese I would have had to retire if, after the term of 1 year as regent, Manchukuo hadn't been instituted as a monarchy yet. However, a year had passed and I neither retired nor used my rights, as I lacked the bravery to do so, and I didn't what to know or where to go in the case that the Kwangtung Army actually let me go. Two days after the aniversary of the institution of Manchukuo, it was Muto himself who adressed the issue. He told me that Japan was still examining what government and administration should the Manchukuo have and, in due time, the issue could be solved.

Some time later, in March 27, 1933, Japan withdrew from the Society of Nations. Almost at the same time, they increased their agression on China. In a brief time, the Japanese troops broke through the barrier of the Great War and sieged both Peking and Tientsin. At the end of May, the Nationalist government of Nanking - busy on their civil war against the communists - made several concessions. China and Japan signed the "treaty of Tanku", which retermined the withdrawal of Chinese troops on an extensive zone south of the Great Wall and gave Japan free hands in Northern China.

Those events had a deep impact along the supporters of my restoration, which were specially active in Northern China. In july, Komai (leader of the "Ministry for General Affairs" and de-facto leader of Manchukuo) returned to "act in favour of the independence of Northern China". He also told Cheng Hiao-Hsu (Prime Minister of Manchukuo) that his main goal would be my restoration in the whole country.

I dreamed again with the Imperial Throne. After the conquest of Jehol by the Japanese, I offered a banquet to Muto and the main officers of the Kwangtung Army and I wished them more glorious victories. When the Japanese stopped only 50Km away from Peking, Cheng Hiao-Hsu explained me the situation. He told me that the occupation of all Northern China and even the whole China was just a matter of time."

Aisin-Gioro Puyi's biography: The Last Emperor.

Author — Podemos URSS


They can demonitize the channel but they will never gett the Alcohol 😁
Congratulations now full speed ahead to 250.000 subscribers Cheers!

Author — Richard Smeets